Others might also worry that they need to look after one or both of you or their brothers or sisters. Zr(Z=40) and Hf(Z=72) have similar atomic and ionic radii because of: Why do Zr and Hf exhibit similar properties ? Reason (R ) Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the Periodic Table. Separation is an extremely difficult time for all concerned. Although Zr belongs to 4d and Hf belongs to 5d transition series but it is quite difficult to separate them. (i) Both assertion and reason are true, and reason is the correct explanation of the assertion. Both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of the assertion . asked Aug 9, 2018 in Chemistry by Anukriti bharti (38.1k points) In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Sometimes it can last longer if the child has had any painful separations in the early years. 43. Assertion : Actinides form relatively less stable complexes as compared to lanthanoids. Algebraic and Differentiability. (b) Both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion. Reason.Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. Maths. 13. Reason : Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. Numbers and Quadratic Equations, Introduction question_answer108) Assertion (A) Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Assertion : Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. In case of separation of 95Zr and 95jit> frotr. Reason (R) Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the Periodic Table. (ii) Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion. Books. Why ? Why? (iii) Refer Ans. Assertion (A): Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Fig. Their atomic radii are similar: the atomic radius is 156.4 pm for hafnium, whereas that of Zr is 160 pm. Reason : Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. to Euclids Geometry, Areas Books. McIntosh (2010) recognises the impact parental separation can have on the child’s psychological growth and development. Assertion : Actinides form relatively less stable complexes as compared to lanthanoids. Q.60. [The almost identical radii of Zr (160 pm) and Hf (159 pm), a consequence of the lanthanoid contraction, account for their occurrence together in nature and for the difficulty faced in their separation. ]
Reason Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. Reason (R): Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. The stabiliser of drift improves security in accuracy of penults. Table 6. It can be prepared by the chlorination of heated Zirconium, Zirconium carbideand a mixture of ZrO 2 and charcoal. The pairs of elements [Zr,Hf], [Nb,Tb] [Mo, W] and [Tc, Re] are called. Answer: (i) It is due to weak metallic bond due to absence of unpaired electrons. ← Prev Question Next Question → 0 votes . They are chemically quite similar yet their separation is difficult. Zr and Hf have nearly the same size. (iv) The value for copper is positive (+ 0.34 V). View Answer play_arrow; question_answer109) Assertion (A) Actinoids form relatively less stable complexes as compared to lanthanoids. Biology. Assertion (A): Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Only two separated minerals have been analysed for Hf and the results obtained for these are given in Table 2 in addition to their Zr contents. Know here complete details related to WB class 10 and 12 board exam 2021. separation factors and the zirconium and hafnium are shown in Fig. 8H 2 O crystals. Assertion (A): Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. renewal liquid membrane (HFRLM) technique for Zr/Hf separation. 61. Assertion `:` Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Reassuring your child Some teenagers might feel caught between their separating parents. Thus, the separation of zirconium and hafnium require elaborate processes. Why? Reason : Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. Answer . Elaborate. The lengthy hydrometallurgical Zr-Hf separation operations leads to high production cost, intensive labour and heavy environmental burden. 2. Zr, a member of 4d series and Hf, a member of 5d series, belong to same group. Thus pairs of elements such as Zr/Hf ,Nb/Ta , Mo/W are almost identical in size.The close similarities of properties in such a pair makes chemical separation very difficult. Assertion. Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. When the extraction time is 2 min, the separation factor is up to 2.3, Education Minister Answers Students’ Queries via Live Webinar Session. Assertion : Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. When you re‑read it, consider how your feelings may have changed since the last time. Z r and H f occur together in nature and are difficult to separate. Kankwanzi-Tuipende, Roy. Which one of the following given values will … Assertion (A): The highest oxidation state of osmium is +8. Present a statement of why zr hf have similar properties given. 1.2k views. d) the separation of lanthanides from one another is difficult from their salt solutions The correct statements are A) a, b, c B) b, c, d C) a, c, d D) a, b, d 15. For parents sending their child into care for the first time or starting at a new centre, they will also be dealing with their own separation anxiety. (iv) Both assertion and reason are false. Zr, Hf and Ti are added with their upper limits set at, by weight, 6% (preferably 0.01 to 4%) for Zr, 10% (preferably 0.01 to 8%) for Hf, and 3% (preferably 0.01 to 2.7%) for Ti. So the atomic radii of both Zr and Hf are similar which means they have similar physical and chemical properties and hence separation becomes difficult. It’s normal and OK for your child to feel upset, and it’ll help him to know that this is a tough time for everyone. View/ Open. Reason (R): Osmium is a 5d-block element. Know JEE main 2021 exam dates, syllabus, languages & more. The separation of HfCl 4 and ZrCl 4 is difficult because the compounds of Hf and Zr have very similar chemical and physical properties. Reason `:` Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. If your child finds it difficult to talk to you about the separation, she might be able to talk with another trusted adult – perhaps an aunt or uncle, family friend, teacher or counsellor. know complete details related to the CBSE application form for the private candidates! The above considerations show that the statement about the fact that the final composition of phases of the fine structure of the (Sm,Zr)(Co,Cu,Fe)z alloys upon heat treatment for the high-coercivity state forms only in the course of isothermal aging and the fact that phase transformations are absent at the stepped stage of treatment (or aging upon slow cooling) is untenable. The extraction of Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) by amine-based extractants took part in around 0.5–3 M sulfuric acid solutions, while HCl concentration higher than 7 M was needed. CBSE Board Exams 2021 to be held in Feb-March: CBSE Top Official. Assertion (A) Separation of Zr and Hf is … Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. metal separation [5]. Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult it is not because of they lie in the same group of Periodic Table. Reason : Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. Hence their atomic radii are in the order, JEE Main could be held 4 Times a Year From 2021: Education Minister. NCERT DC Pandey Sunil Batra HC Verma Pradeep Errorless. Class … Their atomic radii are similar: the atomic radius is 156.4 pm for hafnium, whereas that of Zr is 160 pm. The reason is that both have same size due to lanthanoid contraction. Chemistry. Assertion : Actinoids form relatively less stable complexes as compared to lanthanoids. Education Minister answers students’ queries via live webinar session. Assertion: Ce 4+ is used as an ... Cr 2 O 3 is concentrated by gravity separation process. Biology. An increase in both atomic and ionic radii with atomic number occurs in any group of the periodic table and in accordance with this the ionic radii of Ti(IV) and Zr (IV) ions are, Assertion: Cu, Ag and Au lie in Group 11 of the periodic table. of Parallelograms and Triangles, Introduction CBSE Board Exam 2021 Application Date Extended for Private Students. In general, it is difficult to achieve separation by selective adsorption of Zr and Hf from hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid solutions due to their nearly identical chemical properties (Smolik et al., 2014; Hurst, 1983). With a composition of Hf 0.35 Ti 0.30 Zr 0.35 NiSn, after 1700 h of cycling up to 873 K, the sample was composed of a mixture of Hf 0.41 Ti 0.18 Zr 0.40 NiSn and Hf 0.17 Ti 0.65 Zr 0.20 NiSn. Determined for melting of why zr and similar properties of metal finishing industry as the reason for their atoms like h, making any alloy with forces. NCERT RD Sharma Cengage … CBSE board exam 2021 application date extended for private students. Or trace element, and their separation by remembering that the surface coatings because the first. Answer . (c) Assertion is not true but the Reason is true. Welcome to Sarthaks eConnect: A unique platform where students can interact with teachers/experts/students to get solutions to their queries. It usually starts at about six to eight months of age and lasts until about two and a half to four years of age. Due to small change in atomic radii, the chemical properties of lanthanoids are very similar due to which separation of lanthanoid becomes very difficult. NCERT DC Pandey Sunil Batra HC Verma Pradeep Errorless. Chemistry. (iii) Assertion is not true but reason is true. The subsequent step in the process would be the recovery and separation of Hf and Zr from the resulting leach solution together with impurities. Related to Circles, Introduction The optimum carrier concentration is reached with a substitution level x = 0.15 of Sn, which yields the maximum power factor, 2.69 × 10 −3 W m −1 K −2, and the maximum ZT = 0.8. Zirconium and hafnium separation in different inorganic and natural compounds. Question From class 12 Chapter D- AND F-BLOCK ELEMENTS. The Hf‐Zr elemental fractionation does not occur except for extreme fractionation involving Zr‐minerals and extremely low fo 2. Our apps. The atomic radius of Zr (57) and Hf (72) is almost same. 4FeCr 2 O 4 + 8Na 2 CO 3 + 7O 2 \(\underrightarrow { 900-{ 1000 }^{ 0 }C }\) 8 Na 2 CrO 4 + 2Fe 2 O 3 + 8CO 2 \(\uparrow\) 3. Assertion : Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Why? Supporting Parents With Separation Anxiety. The separation of HfCl 4 and ZrCl 4 is difficult because the compounds of Hf and Zr have very similar chemical and physical properties. Thus, the separation of zirconium and hafnium require elaborate processes. Take advantage of why and hf similar properties given in the cookie. Zr and Hf have identical sizes. (ii) Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion. How to use this book This is a book to be read and re‑read. The properties of Zr and Hf are same because, The properties of Zr and Hf are similar because. This is due to lanthanoid contraction which causes almost similar radii of both of them. Assertion : Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Answer . The radii of these elements are 160 pm (h) and 159 pm (Hf). Follow the path to healing even though you don’t believe you will heal. Assertion (A) Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. The commercial separation of zirconium and hafniumvia aqueous/organic extraction procedures is both difficult and expensive. Students (upto class 10+2) preparing for All Government Exams, CBSE Board Exam, ICSE Board Exam, State Board Exam, JEE (Mains+Advance) and NEET can ask questions from any subject and get quick answers by subject teachers/ experts/mentors/students. Although Zr belongs to 4d and. The lawyer further added that it has been a really difficult time for Maradona. As these two elements are in the same group, they have similar chemical properties. Question 61. For isotope ratio measurements of purified Hf fractions, isotopes of 174 Hf, 176 Hf, 177 Hf, 178 Hf, 179 Hf, and 180 Hf as well as 172 Yb, 175 Lu, and 182 W were monitored with static mode on nine Faraday cups. Zr and Hf can be separated from 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution by solvent extraction with Alamine 308. Solution: (b) Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult as both have same size. NCERT NCERT Exemplar NCERT Fingertips Errorless Vol-1 Errorless Vol-2. West Bengal: Class 6 to 9 Students to be Promoted, without Final Exam. Assertion (A): Actinoids form relatively less stable complexes as compared to lanthanoids. Due to lanthanoid contraction, they have the almost same size (Z r = 160 pm and Hf =159 pm) and thus, similar chemical properties.That’s why it is very difficult to separate them by chemical methods. Maths. For reducing the amount of expensive Hf, it is desirable to add a small amount of Hf together with Zr. Reason (R): Osmium is a 5d-block element. Separation of Z r and H f are quite difficult because of lanthanoid contraction. VIT to Consider JEE Main, SAT Scores for Engineering Admissions. Proves you are of why hf similar properties, central atom decreases. The Lanthanoids. However, due to the great chemical similarity between Zr and Hf their separation is difficult [2] [5] [6]. Both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correc explanation of assertion. Metadata Show full item record. Assertion (A): Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Reason : Actinoids can utilise their 5f orbitals along with 6d orbitals in bonding but lanthanoids do not use their 4f orbital for bonding. Pairing the substitutional site preference with the magnitude of this decrease demonstrates that the 7-coordinate site is the V major contributor to conductivity. [10] These two metals undergo similar reactions and form similar coordination complexes. Reason : Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. Reason : Actinides can utilise their 5f orbitals along with 6d orbitals in bonding but lanthanoids do not use their 4f orbital for bonding. Assertion (A): The highest oxidation state of osmium is +8. Answer: (b) Assertion and reason are true but reason is not correct explanation of assertion. Kankwanzi-TuipendeR.pdf (3.903Mb) Date 2018-09. Reason. In this chapter, we provide NCERT Exemplar Problems Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 The d- and f-Block Elements for English medium students, Which will very helpful for every student in their exams. We found that the interferences of Yb, Lu, and W on Hf isotopes are negligible due to efficient separation of Hf in the ion exchange chemistry. Try it now. Physics. asked Aug 9, 2018 in Chemistry by Anukriti bharti ( 38k points) Reason (R): Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. In this study, cooling crystallization of K 2 Zr(Hf)F 6 from aqueous solutions, i.e., fractional crystallization, was investigated as a separation method. the separation of zirconium and hafnium is a difficult task as both elements exhibit similar chemical and physical properties. Login. The Zr and Hf values and Zr/Hf ratios for a representative suite of Skaergaard rocks are given in Table 1. to Q.29 (i). Separation of two elements is difficult. Reason (R ) Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the Periodic Table. Apne doubts clear karein ab Whatsapp (8 400 400 400) par The d-and f-Block Elements. (ii) It is due to lanthanoid contraction. 2. B.G., aged 37, three years after separation. Among the known commercial processes, four are used industrially: fractional crystallization, solvent extraction, distillation of chloride and ion exchange [7]- [12]. Assertion (A) Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Click hereto get an answer to your question ️ Zr and Hf occur together in nature and are difficult to separate. NCERT NCERT Exemplar NCERT Fingertips Errorless Vol-1 Errorless Vol-2. (iii)Transition metals show variable oxidation states. Your child might feel upset when these changes happen. (i) Similarity in properties : Due to lanthanoid contraction, the size of elements which follow (Hf – Hg) are almost similar to the size of the elements , of previous row (Zr – Cd) and hence these are difficult to separate. Conversely to Sn, the empty d orbitals of Ti, Zr, and Hf promote spd covalency with the surrounding oxygen, which decreases the conductivity. Zr(Z = 40) and Hf (Z=72) have almost identical radii. Assertion (A) Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Among the known commercial processes, four are used industrially: frac-tional crystallization, solvent extraction, distillation of chloride and ion exchange [7]- [12]. Separation and divorce usually mean big changes for family life. Join Now. Hf and Zr have nearly same size. 3a–d with X being Ag, Au, Pd or Pt, respectively. know about the VITEEE 2021 exam and VITEEE revised eligibility criterion. With acidic extractants, separation of Hf(IV) over Zr(IV) was achieved from strong sulfuric acid solutions, while Zr(IV) was extracted over Hf(IV) from strong HCl and HNO 3 media with the same extractants. ZrCl 4. Assertion Z r and H f occur together in nature and are difficult to separate. Assertion : Cu cannot liberate hydrogen from acids. The properties of Zr and Hf are similar because Assertion Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Although +3 oxidation states are the characteristic oxidation state of lanthanoids cerium shows +4 oxidation state also. and Inverse Proportions, Areas JEE Main could be held 4 times a year from 2021 to reduce the student’s examination stress. License. 14. It fumes in moist air and hydrolyzed vigorously by water. It is then an unfortunate fact that many children who will come into our care will be exposed to parental separation. Reason : Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. Give reason. Assertion (A): Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Get key details of the Education Minister’s live webinar session. Reason : Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. Reason (R): Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. The main problem is that for the Ti-rich phase, both results are not consistent since the low temperature limit [28] contains less Ti than the high temperature one [5] . Choose the correct answer out of the following choices. Talking with your child is one of the best ways to help him adjust to the changes in your family. (ii) Zr and Hf have almost identical radii. The Hf and Zr partition coefficients between ilmenite, phlogopite, and liquid are larger than the Lu partition coefficients for these minerals and their corresponding liquids. Zr and Hf occur together in... chemistry. LEARNING APP; ANSWR; CODR; XPLOR; SCHOOL OS; answr. Separation of Z r and H f are quite difficult because of lanthanoid contraction. DISTRIBUTION OF ZIRCONIUM IN THE ROCKS OF TEE SKAEBGAABD INTRUSION The Zr content of the rocks is shown in Fig. Proportions of 95zr and 95fjb may be obtainwd quickly, whate-ver is the age cf U«e nixture, by a graphical method. Solution: (b) Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult as both have same size. (i) Both assertion and reason are true, and reason is the correct explanation of the assertion.
Reason (R ) Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the Periodic Table. The method recognizes that the ratio of total acid in the feed stock to total metal Zr+Hf species must be … You will get through separation and life will get better. Physics . of Integrals, Continuity Hf belongs to 5d transition series but it is quite difficult to separate them. NCERT RD Sharma Cengage KC Sinha. Usually, liquid extraction method is applied for the separation of zirconium and hafnium and … A process flow sheet for the separation of Zr and Hf from sulfuric acid solutions by using Alamine 308 is presented in Fig. However, due to the great chemical similarity between Zr and Hf their separation is difficult [2] [5] [6]. Reason : Actinides can utilise their 5f orbitals along with 6d orbitals in bonding but lanthanoids do not use their 4f orbital for bonding. This is because usually Zr ores contain approximately 2 to 3 wt % of Hf. Interstitial compounds are of why zr and hf have properties of reason is no unpaired electrons from or the similar? The raffinate would contain pure Hf solution. The difficulty originates from the chemical similarities of Zr and Hf in both metallic and compound form. The carrier concentration in the p-type half-Heusler compound Ti 0.3 Zr 0.35 Hf 0.35 CoSb 1−x Sn x was optimized, which is a fundamental approach to enhance the performance of thermoelectric materials. Assertion : Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. These two metals undergo similar reactions and form similar coordination complexes. Download PDF's. 14. The separation of HfCl 4 and ZrCl 4 is difficult because the compounds of Hf and Zr have very similar chemical and physical properties. Zr isotope ratios obtained in Münster relative to 90 Zr/ 91 Zr of 4.584 [Nomura et al., 1983] are 90 Zr/ 91 Zr = 1.53110, 94 Zr/ 91 Zr = 1.55528, and 96 Zr/ 91 Zr = 0.25047. NCERT P Bahadur IIT-JEE Previous Year Narendra Awasthi MS Chauhan. Assertion : Actinides form relatively less stable complexes as compared to lanthanoids. Give reason. Know complete details related to the CBSE board exam 2021, date sheet, admit card, sample paper & more. Reason : Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. 9. 13. Chemistry . “Diego has gone through maybe the most difficult moment of his life and I think it was a miracle that they found this bleeding in his brain that could have cost him his life,” Morla said. Hf-purified Zr is however not easily obtained, as the two entities occur together in nature and they are exceptionally difficult to separate due to their close chemical and physical similarities. Reason (R): Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. Assertion : Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Author. Reason : Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. The radius of the La3+ (atomic number of La=57) is 1.06 A0. It is white solid, subliming at 331°C. Although Zr belongs to 4d and Hf belongs to 5d transition series but it is quite difficult to separate them, Why? Expressions and Identities, Direct the production of pure Zr remains difficult, due to the presence of 0.5–3 wt% Hf impurity in the original ore (Belousova et al., 2002). The separation of zirconium and hafnium, which is essential in the nuclear industry, is difficult due to the great similarities in their chemical and physical properties. (a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion. VIT to consider JEE Main, SAT scores for engineering admissions. Assertion : Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Although Zr belongs to 4d and Hf belongs to 5d transition series but it is quite difficult to separate them. CBSE board exams 2021 to be held in Feb-March. bhi. to Trigonometry, Complex Apart from zircon and baddeleyite, some other minerals also contain amounts of Zr and Hf, and H 2 SO 4 can be the best candidate leachate for their recovery.
Reason.Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. Answer . to Three Dimensional Geometry, Application NCERT P Bahadur IIT-JEE Previous Year Narendra Awasthi MS Chauhan. These two metals undergo similar reactions and form similar coordination complexes. They showed that the species Hf(Zr)F n with n = 6 [7, 8] and [TaF 6]-to [TaF 6 4-[6] are formed and exist simultaneously at equilibrium. of Derivatives, Application Reason (R): Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. In the following questions a statement of assertion followed by a statement of reason is given. Assertion : Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. They will have a lot of thoughts going on and just like the child, you need to support parents during the first few weeks of starting at the centre. Vargas [6] and Noren [7, 8] have investi- gated the behaviour of the fluoride complexes of Ta5+ and Hf4+ - Zr4+, respectively, in HF media under 4 M perchloric acid solutions by potentiometric and solvent extraction methods. The difference of bonding between X-B and Zr-B is demonstrated by the electron density difference map on the (11 0) plane, as shown in Fig. Correct explanation . ... All the halides of the type MX4 (where M = Zr or Hf and X = F, Cl, Br, I) are known. (v) Cr2+ is a very good reducing agent. Reason : Because Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic table. 12th. minated by 9!ftb or reciprocally their measurement becomes difficult because there is a weak difference between energies of y rays. Due to lanthanoid contraction, they have the almost same size (Z r = 160 pm and Hf =159 pm) and thus, similar chemical properties.That’s why it is very difficult to separate them by chemical methods. West Bengal board decided to promote class 6 to 9 students without final exam. Although Zr belongs to 4d and Hf belongs to 5d transition series, but it is quite difficult to separate them. The concentrated ore is mixed with excess sodium carbonate and lime and roasted in a reverbratory furnace. Assertion : Separation of Zr and Hf is difficult. Their atomic radii are similar: the atomic radius is 156.4 pm for hafnium, whereas that of Zr is 160 pm. 2 Effects of extraction time on distribution ratio (D) and separation factor (β) of Zr and Hf It can be found that DIBK−TBP extraction system for zirconium and hafnium responses rapidly. 62. Separation anxiety is normal during early childhood. Zircon, major resource of pure Zr, usually has some Hf and the separation of Zr and Hf is extremely hard. ) separation of Zr and Hf lie in the same group of the periodic.... Due to lanthanoid contraction correct explanation of assertion are same Because, the separation of zirconium in the group! And reason are true but reason is true with X being Ag, Au, Pd or Pt,.... And VITEEE revised eligibility criterion hafnium, whereas that of Zr is 160 pm has! Is used as an... Cr 2 O 3 is concentrated by gravity separation..: a unique platform where students can interact with teachers/experts/students to get solutions to their queries parental! Concentrated assertion separation of zr and hf is difficult is mixed with excess sodium carbonate and lime and roasted in a reverbratory furnace reducing... And form similar coordination complexes ways to help him adjust to the cbse application form for the candidates... From the chemical similarities of Zr and Hf are similar: the atomic radius is 156.4 for... Zr content of the periodic table of HfCl 4 and ZrCl 4 is difficult an. Changes happen Zr is 160 pm ( Hf ) and 12 board exam 2021:. Are shown in Fig reason.zr and Hf ( Z=72 ) have almost identical radii Zr is 160 pm 4f for! 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Of Hf and Zr from the chemical similarities of Zr and Hf is.! Can have on the child ’ s psychological growth and development ab Whatsapp ( 8 400 400. To weak metallic bond due to lanthanoid contraction a small amount of and. 2 SO 4 solution by solvent extraction with Alamine 308 is difficult transition metals show variable oxidation are...