The effects of karma caused by them may manifest immediately, sometime later in the current life or in a … He then underwent harsh ascetic practices that he eventually also became disillusioned with. Whereas some priests and contemplatives...maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as forecasting: there will be a lunar eclipse; there will be a solar eclipse; there will be an occultation of an asterism; the sun and moon will go their normal courses; the sun and moon will go astray; the asterisms will go their normal courses; the asterisms will go astray; there will be a meteor shower; there will be a darkening of the sky; there will be an earthquake; there will be thunder coming from a clear sky; there will be a rising, a setting, a darkening, a brightening of the sun, moon, and asterisms; such will be the result of the lunar eclipse... the rising, setting, darkening, brightening of the sun, moon, and asterisms — he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these. hinduism_and_buddhism_vol2_2011_librivox Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0 (Extended OCR) Ppi 600 Run time 14:09:52 Year 2020 .  The most basic meaning of this Sanskrit term is with technique. The author lived for some time in the Far East, and paid many visits to India, during which time he was able to collect and collate the vast amount of information presented here. Meditation was an aspect of the practice of the yogis in the centuries preceding the Buddha. Köp Hinduism and Buddhism av Ananda K Coomaraswamy på Bokus.com. Buddhism is very old; the Buddha was born around 500 BCE. , Early Buddhist scriptures do not mention schools of learning directly connected with the Upanishads. The list of various practices he taught disciples as well as practices he doesn't encourage are listed. Whereas some priests and contemplatives...engage in scheming, persuading, hinting, belittling, and pursuing gain with gain, he abstains from forms of scheming and persuading [improper ways of trying to gain material support from donors] such as these. According to this tradition, Buddhism is a Nastika school since it rejects the authority of the Vedas. The Importance of the Vedas and Sanskrit These deities of virtues and great yaksha generals are located everywhere in Jambudvipa. Inden, Ronald. Buddhism and Hinduism have the same roots. Buddhism, in contrast to Hinduism, has a single founder and while there is no singular text there are texts that outline the teachings of the Buddha as the great and exemplary teacher. DasGupta, Surendranath. For example, in the Samaññaphala Sutta, the Buddha is depicted presenting a notion of the "three knowledges" (tevijja) – a term also used in the Vedic tradition to describe knowledge of the Vedas – as being not texts, but things that he had experienced. At that time Baka, the Brahmā, produced the following pernicious view: 'It is permanent. (Majority or strong influence) Mainly in Thailand, Cambodia, Sri lanka, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, Japan, Myanmar (Burma), Laos, Vietnam, China, Mongolia, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan. He became enlightened at Bodhgaya, India and delivered his first set of teachings at a deer park in Sarnath, India.  Hinduism comprises of numerous varying beliefs, culture and ideologies, unlike Buddhism, Christianity or Islam, that it becomes impossible to track genesis of Hinduism. The term "free will" signifies the belief that rational people have the capacity to make their own life choices. Other terms that appear are 'Vimokha', or 'Vimutti', implying 'salvation' and 'deliverance' respectively. Sort by: Top Voted. The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Possibly the most famous Upanishadic dictum is tat tvam asi, "thou art that." Mainly in India, Nepal and Mauritius. However, some Buddhist sects have absorbed beliefs about local deities from other religions in their area. [better source needed]. He reached full Arahantship or full Awakening/Enlightenment after becoming ordained in the Buddha's sangha. The focus of the Noble Eightfold Path, while inheriting many practices and ideologies from the previous Hindu yogic tradition, deviates from the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita and earlier works of the Dharmic Religions in that liberation (Nirvana or Moksha) is not attained via unity with Brahman (the Godhead), Self-realization or worship. In the Buddha's system by contrast, one has to make things happen. He also regarded the belief that the Buddha was an incarnation of Vishnu as "false propaganda". Dhammapada XXVI, translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu: Radhakrishnan: Indian Philosophy, vol.2, p. 469. Whereas some priests and contemplatives...maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as: calculating auspicious dates for marriages, betrothals, divorces; for collecting debts or making investments and loans; for being attractive or unattractive; curing women who have undergone miscarriages or abortions; reciting spells to bind a man's tongue, to paralyze his jaws, to make him lose control over his hands, or to bring on deafness; getting oracular answers to questions addressed to a mirror, to a young girl, or to a spirit medium; worshipping the sun, worshipping the Great Brahma, bringing forth flames from the mouth, invoking the goddess of luck — he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these. Both say that a Brahmin is a person having certain qualities. Hinduism and Buddhism. Sharma noted that overall, Hinduism has more than 1.2 billion followers, Buddhism has over 535 million followers and Sikhism around 30 million followers across the world. Though nearest to the latter, it goes beyond any ideas of 'soul' in the sense of immortal 'self' and is better styled 'consciousness-mysticism'. In so doing, one realizes Nirvana. In addition, both religions share common … Hinduism origin was the Indus valley 1500 BC and there was no single founder. To have an idea of the differences between Buddhism and pre-existing beliefs and practices during this time, we can look into the Samaññaphala Sutta in the Digha Nikaya of the Pali Canon. Beliefs made visible: Hindu art in South Asia . The yaksha Dharani resides at Dvarapali. Interestingly, the founder of Buddhism, Gautam Buddha, was a Hindu from the warrior community.So, it is not surprising that most of the concepts of Buddhism and Hinduism are similar. The author has provided a lot of information on the birth, spread and the message of Hinduism and Buddhism. Hinduism and Buddhism are belief systems throughout the world, they have impacted lots of people's lives and have considerable amounts of influences on the people and regions they practice. Hinduism is about understanding Brahma, existence, from within the Atman, which roughly means "self" or "soul," whereas Buddhism is about finding the Anatman — "not soul" or "not self." , Some scholars have written that Buddhism should be regarded as "reformed Brahmanism", and many Hindus consider Buddhism a sect of Hinduism. Comment Report abuse. Hinduism and Buddhism have many similarities. Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. Nevertheless, there are major differences between these two religions. Others believe he was a holy man. Interestingly, towards the final years, Ambedkar discarded Hinduism and started practising Buddhism. Mantra, in Hinduism and Buddhism, a sacred utterance (syllable, word, or verse) that is considered to possess mystical or spiritual efficacy.Various mantras are either spoken aloud or merely sounded internally in one’s thoughts, and they are either repeated continuously for some time or just sounded once. Web. In the Buddhist texts, it is seen that when Gautama, after his awakening, was asked whether he was a normal human being, he replied, "No". Both religions have the Dharma, karma and reincarnation. However, kings in mythology often married more than one woman. "All account emphasize that caste has no bearing on a person's status in the monastic community. Were one to do so, who would the doubter be?  The Buddha's rejection of these theories is therefore one instance of the Buddha's attack on the whole enterprise of Upanishadic ontology. Hinduism is closely related to other Indian religions, including Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. In Hinduism, attaining the highest life is a process of removing the bodily distractions from life, allowing one to eventually understand the Brahma nature within. They share a belief of reincarnation, where your soul encounters a cycle of multiple lifetimes, broken only once a spiritual peak is reached. However, both Samkhya and Advaita consider the ego (asmita, ahamkara) rather than the Ātman to be the cause of pleasure and pain. Richard Francis Gombrich, How Buddhism began: the conditioned genesis of the early teachings Continuum International Publishing Group, 1996, page 38. According to one Buddhist scholar, theories of this sort have most often originated among meditators who label a particular meditative experience as the ultimate goal, and identify with it in a subtle way.. When Anuruddha, I realized that doubt is an imperfection of the mind, I dropped out of doubt, an imperfection of the mind. Attaining nirvana is the only way to escape suffering permanently. Hinduism though proposes detachment from fruits of action, While Buddhism says retirement into forest was open to everyone regardless of caste, and although according to the vinaya (the code of conduct for the Sangha) it is not possible to take ordination as a Buddhist mendicant (a Bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni) under the age of 20 or adulthood, this is still viewed as escapism by Hinduism. , The Buddha denies the existence of the cosmic Self, as conceived in the Upanishadic tradition, in the Alagaddupama Sutta (M I 135-136). This is made clear in the dialogue with Upasiva, where the liberated sage is defined as someone who has passed beyond conceptual dualities.  He also wrote that for self-protection man created God and for self-preservation man created "soul".. Buddhism, Hinduism, And Hinduism 1817 Words | 8 Pages. In Hinduism, the term "Yoga" commonly refers to the eight limbs of yoga as defined in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, written some time after 100 BCE, and means "yoke", with the idea that one's individual atman, or soul, would yoke or bind with the monistic entity that underlies everything (brahman). Those who sought refuge with Vishnu were deluded. Buddhism attained prominence in the Indian subcontinent as it was supported by royal courts, but started to decline after the Gupta era and virtually disappeared from India in the 11th century CE, except in some pockets. Interestingly, the founder of Buddhism, Gautam Buddha, was a Hindu from the warrior community.So, it is not surprising that most of the concepts of Buddhism and Hinduism are similar. Diwali, Holi, Janmashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi, etc. Vi går igenom vilka skillnader det finns mellan hinduismen och buddhismen men också likheterna. Some of the Buddha's meditative techniques were shared with other traditions of his day, but the idea that ethics are causally related to the attainment of "religious insight" (Sanskrit: prajñā) was original. See all reviews. Ignorance, as all sentient beings. Buddhism and Hinduism and Buddhism are similar in the fact that both of their origins in India. , Nirvana (or Nibbana in Pali language) means literally 'blowing out' or 'quenching'. Beliefs vary. Maharishi Sarava / Maharishi Manu / Maharishi Amgiraja / Maharishi Indra / Maharishi Brhaspati / Maharishi Sukra / Maharishi Prabha / Maharishi Suka / Maharishi Aranemi / Maharishi Sanaiscara / Yoga in Hinduism also known as being 'complex', based on yoking (integrating). Next lesson. , In the Buddhist texts, there are many Brahmās.  The Buddha taught that these meditative states alone do not offer a decisive and permanent end to suffering either during life or after death. , Since the Hindu scriptures are essentially silent on the issue of religious conversion, the issue of whether Hindus proselytize is open to interpretations. No distinctions between men and women. This is not in conformity with Buddhist usage. Buddhism does not believe in reincarnation but rather in rebirth; Hinduism and Buddhism are both very popular religious philosophies across India. Krishnananda, (Swami). Anyone who follows the teachings of Vedas is considered Arya. In Hinduism you embrace a great diversity of different beliefs, a fact that can be easy confusing to western religions which are accustomed to creeds, confessions, and carefully-worded beliefs of statements. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the effects of karma have to be resolved by addressing their causes. Hayes, Richard P., "Principled Atheism in the Buddhist Scholastic Tradition", R.K. Payne: The Tantric Ritual of Japan.  Buddhists on the whole called those who did not believe in Buddhism the "outer path-farers" (tiirthika). Seems to be one pf the more accurate websites. If one practices it, he shall be able to enter into association with Brahmā." It is generally regarded as the oldest organized religion in the world. Darling, Gregory Joseph. The Buddhist Sangha, composed of bhikkhus (male monks) and bhikkhunis (female nuns). I thought, "What is the cause and condition in which light and vision of the forms disappear?”, Then consider the following: "The question arose in me and because of doubt my concentration fell, when my concentration fell, the light disappeared and the vision of forms. But, since Hinduism combines the ideas of many people, over many centuries, the main teachings of Hinduism … ", Gautama Buddha confined himself to what is empirically given. They will even get into trouble from their own deeds, whatever their caste (Brahmin, Khattiya, Vessa, and Sudda) might be.. They are cultural figures and are independent of the doctrinal basis of Buddhism. The Philosophy of the Panchadasi.  They describe meditative practices and states that existed before the Buddha, as well as those first developed within Buddhism. However, those who see Hinduism primarily as a philosophy, a set of beliefs, or a way of life generally believe that one can convert to Hinduism by incorporating Hindu beliefs into one's life and by considering oneself a Hindu. Hinduism lays stress on karma (deeds) and reincarnation. Common. There is a range of common terminology and common descriptions of the meditative states that are seen as the foundation of meditation practice in both Hindu Yoga and Buddhism. Kalidas' work shows the ascension of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism. It is independent existence.  This was because Buddhism has never been considered an alien religion to that of Hinduism in India but as only one of the many strains of Hinduism. Haripingala resides in Malla. Has significant population in Fiji, Bhutan, UAE, etc. Hindu texts mostly mentions the devas in Kamma Loka. Various sources from the Pali Canon and others suggest that the Buddha taught that belief in a Creator deity was not essential to attaining liberation from suffering, and perhaps chose to ignore theological questions because they were "fascinating to discuss," and frequently brought about more conflict and anger than peace.  The Pāli scriptures present a "pernicious view" that is set up as an absolute principle corresponding to Brahman: "O Bhikkhus! Women are equal to men, and men are equal to women in the Sangha. These include the Kaiyuan Temple and Angkor Wat. Transposed into first person, the Pali version is eso ‘ham asmi, "I am this." Buddhism started off in the later sixth century by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) in a place called Lumbini near the Himalayan foothills. The Buddha said in the Ariyapariyesana Sutta: But the thought occurred to me, "This Dhamma leads not to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to stilling, to direct knowledge, to Awakening, nor to Unbinding, but only to reappearance in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception." 10 Dec 2020.  These theories are undergirded by the Upanishadic correspondence between macrocosm and microcosm, from which perspective it is not surprising that meditative states of consciousness were thought to be identical to the subtle strata of the cosmos.  Unlike Advaita, Samkhya holds blissfullness of Ātman as merely figurative. The old Upanishads ascribe these characteristics to Brahman as well. In Buddha's teaching, karma is a direct intentional result of a person's word, thought and/or action in life. This is sometimes called the "ninth jhāna" in commentarial and scholarly literature. A major departure from Hindu and Jain philosophy is the Buddhist rejection of a permanent, self-existent soul (Ātman) in favour of anicca or impermanence. At the first stage of the Kali Age, the path of the Vedas was destroyed and all men became Buddhists. Gautama Buddha was very ambiguous about the existence of a Creator Deity (Brahman) and Eternal Self (Atman) and rejected them both. When I realized that inattention ... sloth and torpor ... fear ... elation ... inertia ... excessive energy ... deficient energy ... desire ... perception of diversity ... excessive meditation on the ways, I abandoned excessive meditation on the ways, an imperfection of the mind. Thus, Buddhism and Hinduism were kept apart, regarding their attitude towards caste system. Buddhism is strictly not a religion in the context of being a faith and worship owing allegiance to a supernatural being. Women are given equal rights as men. Feeding the Gods: the Shingon Fire Ritual., and Koenraad Elst: Who is a Hindu? In Buddhism, people are not divided on varnas to such an extent as in Hinduism. They uphold and protect the Buddhadharma, generating compassion. Buddhist Meditation. Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. In these texts the Buddha is portrayed not as a creator-denying atheist who claims to be able to prove such a God's nonexistence, but rather his focus is other teachers' claims that their teachings lead to the highest good. , The concept of Nirvana has been also found among other religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism. "Whereas some priests and contemplatives...maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as: reading marks on the limbs [e.g., palmistry]; reading omens and signs; interpreting celestial events [falling stars, comets]; interpreting dreams; reading marks on the body [e.g., phrenology]; reading marks on cloth gnawed by mice; offering fire oblations, oblations from a ladle, oblations of husks, rice powder, rice grains, ghee, and oil; offering oblations from the mouth; offering blood-sacrifices; making predictions based on the fingertips; geomancy; laying demons in a cemetery; placing spells on spirits; reciting house-protection charms; snake charming, poison-lore, scorpion-lore, rat-lore, bird-lore, crow-lore; fortune-telling based on visions; giving protective charms; interpreting the calls of birds and animals — he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these. This is a facsimile edition of Sir Charles Eliot's great work on Hinduism and Buddhism, first published in 1921. In Buddhist cosmology, there are 31 planes of existence within samsara. Since both of them arose from the same part of the globe, they do have a number of similar beliefs but they differ on other practices and doctrines. , The old Upanishads largely consider Brahman (masculine gender, Brahmā in the nominative case, henceforth "Brahmā") to be a personal god, and Brahman (neuter gender, Brahma in the nominative case, henceforth "Brahman") to be the impersonal world principle. (2008).  The most basic presupposition of early Brahminic cosmology is the identification of man and the cosmos (instances of this occur at TU II.1 and Mbh XII.195), and liberation for the yogin was thought to only occur at death, with the adept's union with brahman (as at Mbh XII.192.22). Vidyaranya, another Advaita Vedantic philosopher, expresses this argument as: No one can doubt the fact of his own existence. , Vivekananda wrote in glowing terms about Buddha, and visited Bodh Gaya several times. Hinduism och Buddhism Hinduism är den äldsta av världsreligionerna och buddhismen är äldre än både kristendom och islam. Since, unlike Hinduism, Buddhism was practiced in several countries outside India, it has also developed many local and geographical flavors and goes by distinct names such as Tibetan Buddhism, Chinese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhism, Burmese Buddhism, Thailand Buddhism, Western Buddhism, and so on. It has continued to exist outside of India and has become the major religion in several Asian countries. We are in an endless cycle of birth, death and re-birth, which can only be broken by attaining nirvana. The yaksha Vibhisana resides in Tamraparni. IV. Hinduism and Buddhism have common origins in the Ganges culture of northern India during the "second urbanisation" around 500 BCE. The conch, endless knot, fish, lotus, parasol, vase, dharmachakra (Wheel of Dharma), and victory banner. Other purposes have included religious ceremonies to accumulate wealth, avoid danger, or eliminate enemies. SUNY Series in Philosophy. Salvation, freedom from the cycle of birth and reincarnation. Hinduism and Buddhism, an introduction. Shortly after the vision of light and shapes disappear. In these traditions, beings that live in harmony with dharma proceed more quickly toward, according to the tradition, Dharma Yukam, Moksha, or Nirvana (personal liberation).  The early Buddhist scriptures furthermore defined purity as determined by one's state of mind, and refer to anyone who behaves unethically, of whatever caste, as "rotting within", or "a rubbish heap of impurity".. This mediæval Buddhism was also, as in other countries, mixed with Hinduism [Pg 53] but whereas in Camboja and Champa Śivaism, especially the worship of the lingam, was long the official and popular cult and penetrated to Siam, few Śivaite emblems but numerous statues of Vishṇuite deities have hitherto been discovered in Burma.  He has not attained enlightenment during that life as Krishna.  The old Upanishads ascribe these characteristics to Brahmā: first, he has light and luster as his marks; second, he is invisible; third, he is unknowable, and it is impossible to know his nature; fourth, he is omniscient. According to Wynne, liberation for the Buddha "... is nondual in another, more radical, sense. Most notable in this context is the relationship between the system of four Buddhist dhyana states (Pali: jhana) and the samprajnata samadhi states of Classical Yoga. Pris: 369 kr. P. 86. Mantras existed in the historical Vedic religion, Zoroastrianism and the Shramanic traditions, and thus they remain important in Buddhism and Jainism as well as other faiths of Indian origin such as Sikhism. Koenraad Elst 2001: Who is a Hindu. Begun in 1907, it was practically complete when the World War I broke out. Whereas some priests and contemplatives... are addicted to scents, cosmetics, and means of beautification such as these — rubbing powders into the body, massaging with oils, bathing in perfumed water, kneading the limbs, using mirrors, ointments, garlands, scents, ... bracelets, head-bands, decorated walking sticks... fancy sunshades, decorated sandals, turbans, gems, yak-tail whisks, long-fringed white robes — he abstains from ... means of beautification such as these.  Citing the Devadaha Sutta (Majjhima Nikaya 101), Hayes states, "while the reader is left to conclude that it is attachment rather than God, actions in past lives, fate, type of birth or efforts in this life that is responsible for our experiences of sorrow, no systematic argument is given in an attempt to disprove the existence of God. The sangha is supported by lay Buddhists.  The true "three knowledges" are said to be constituted by the process of achieving enlightenment, which is what the Buddha is said to have achieved in the three watches of the night of his enlightenment.. (Before Common Era). In the same way as above, the Buddha encountered many more obstacles that caused the light to disappear and found his way out of them. Though the earliest Upanishads had been completed by the Buddha's time, they are not cited in the early Buddhist texts as Upanishads or Vedanta. Could that be the path to Awakening?" 39,166 Views . Swami Prabhavananda, The Upanishads: Breath of the Eternal. The nondual goal in early Brahminism was conceived in ontological terms; the goal was that into which one merges after death. The Buddha is recorded in the Canki Sutta (Majjhima Nikaya 95) as saying to a group of Brahmins: O Vasettha, those priests who know the scriptures are just like a line of blind men tied together where the first sees nothing, the middle man nothing, and the last sees nothing. Post-Vedic texts like the Gita are also revered. Rhys Davids also states that the term samadhi is not found in any pre-Buddhist text. The practice of Yoga is intimately connected to the religious beliefs and practices of both Hinduism and Buddhism. Paranjpe, A. C. Self and Identity in Modern Psychology and Indian Thought.  Furthermore, Shankara thought that no doubts could be raised about the Self, for the act of doubting implies at the very least the existence of the doubter. 3000 f.Kr. It is presumption of historians that the basic idea of meditation passed to Buddhism from Hinduism, as the founder of Buddhism himself was a Hindu, before attaining Moksha. The term "Buddha" too has appeared in Hindu scriptures before the birth of Gautama Buddha. To break the cycle of birth, death and reincarnation, and attain salvation. For the book, see, "We may distinguish among Upanishads in terms of relative age. The idea of an omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent creator is rejected by Buddhists. Hinduism. Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi. Moreover, the passage denies that one’s self is the same as the world and that one will become the world self at death. In the early translation phase of the Sutrayana and Tantrayana from India, China and other regions to Tibet, along with the practice lineages of sadhana, codified in the Nyingmapa canon, the most subtle 'conveyance' (Sanskrit: yana) is Adi Yoga (Sanskrit). The Buddha did not reject the formless attainments in and of themselves, but instead the doctrines of his teachers as a whole, as they did not lead to nibbana. Buddhist teachings carry a markedly different meaning from pre-Buddhist conceptions of karma.. In that regard, the chapter on Brahmins in the Dhammapada may be regarded as being entirely in tune with the definition of a Brahmin in Chapter 18 of the Bhagavad Gita. Buddhism stresses more the balance and unity of all things. It has the dharma of non-perishing. Hinduism and Buddhism share a lot of the same terminology and concepts but have some rather different interpretations of these shared terms and concepts. Maharishi Harita / Maharishi Haritaya / Maharishi Samangira / Maharishi Udgata / Maharishi Samudgata / Maharishi Ksantivadi / Maharishi Kirtti / Maharishi Sukirtti / Maharishi Guru / Maharishi Sarabha / Enlightenment in Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta: Are Nirvana and Moksha the Same? Hinduism is the oldest religion on the planet that has been well established and still has a large following. In each of these three religions, they all share some religious tenets, or beliefs, that is universally accepted amongst all religions around the world and throughout history.  They do not strictly distinguish between the two, however. , Upanishadic soteriology is focused on the static Self, while the Buddha's is focused on dynamic agency. "Hinduism and Buddhism" redirects here. In Hinduism, attaining the highest life is a process of removing the bodily distractions from life, allowing one to eventually understand the Brahma nature within. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. ", The Buddha (as portrayed in the Pali scriptures, the agamas) set an important trend in nontheism in Buddhism by establishing a somewhat non-theistic view on the notion of an omnipotent God, generally ignoring the issue as being irrelevant to his teachings. Hinduism is a vast religion. Edit or create new comparisons in your area of expertise. Buddhismen uppkommer omkring 500 f.Kr. , The Buddha redefined the word "brahmin" so as to become a synonym for arahant, replacing a distinction based on birth with one based on spiritual attainment. March 26, 1996. With the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress — he enters & remains in the Fourth Jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. Hinduism is about understanding Brahma, existence, from within the Atman, which roughly means "self" or "soul," whereas Buddhism is about finding the Anatman — "not soul" or "not self." Shortly after the vision of light and shapes disappear.  Later schools of Indian religious thought were influenced by this interpretation and novel ideas of the Buddhist tradition of beliefs. In fact, Buddhism can be considered a new branch of Hinduism – one without the more orthodox ways of Hinduism.