The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean. In 226 BCE Hasdrubal had signed an agreement with Rome, concerned at Carthage’s expanding empire, not to cross the River Ebro in southern Spain, but Hannibal, now in overall command in Spain, was more ambitious. Carthage had lost the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and control of Sicily, then again it had been defeated in the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) and so lost its Spanish empire, its fleet, and independence of military action. Course Hero, Inc. One major result is that Carthage lost plain and simple. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. He supplemented his own force with local recruits and amassed a 50,000-strong army with a corps of 100 elephants. While with the Carthaginians, their general/leader for the war was a military genius. Carthaginian War Elephantsby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The 25-year old general sailed from Ostia and quickly made his mark on the war by a shock capture of the main Carthaginian supply base and treasury in Spain, Carthago Nova (modern Cartagena) in 209 BCE. The Romans had never been a naval power, and needed to build a massive fleet. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. The Second Punic War was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. The second Punic War lasted 218-201 B.C.for 17 years. Hannibal's Major Battles in Italyby Frank Martini (CC BY-SA). The first Punic War lasted from 264-241 B.C. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, an… And, in the final battle at Zama, Scipio had shown what could be achieved by adapting standard tactics to defeat specific enemies. Syphax would later defect to the Carthaginians, and the Roman Senate was initially against an invasion, but eventually Scipio got his backing and was ready to strike at the soft underbelly of the Carthaginian held territories in Africa, just as Hannibal was doing in southern Italy. The difficult journey lost him a significant portion of his army but the losses were more to do with fighting hostile Gallic tribes and desertions than the elements. • the war left Rome in control - for the first time - of Cisapline Gaul, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain (which they decided to keep) - i.e. Contributions are tax deductible to the extent permitted by law. He secured Spain with an army of about 16,000 men under the command of Hasdrubal and took 80,000 infantry, 12,000 Numidian and Iberian cavalry and a number of elephants with him on his march. The Mercenary War (240-237 BC) Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after the First Punic War, even though Carthage lost the war to Rome. But what were the results of the wars? This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Rome might have feared a land battle but they were still masters of the seas, and this meant that Hannibal could not be resupplied. All rights reserved. The result of this spectacular campaign was that most of the city-states of southern Italy defected to the Carthaginian cause, including Italy’s second most important city, Capua. Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. September- Hannibal defeated the Gaul Volcae tribe in the Battle of Rhone Crossing. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, and it was he who attacked Carthage on home soil, beating Hannibal and delivering final victory. Wherever Hannibal was not, the Romans would attack. License. Nevertheless, Carthage recovered from the Second Punic War relatively quickly and coins and trade goods from this period have be… The Mercenary War & The Second Punic War . The first Punic War was fought over the control of Sicily and the Western Mediterranean. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. ... Second Punic War begins. An army of 13,500 men and corps of elephants were redirected by Carthage to Spain instead of Hannibal in Italy. In typical fashion, the Carthaginian general used the terrain to his advantage, this time putting his 50,000 troops close to the River Aufidus; he constrained the eight legions of the enemy to do likewise and thus restricted their possibility of manoeuvre and gain advantage from their greater numbers. ” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. This was the so-called ‘Fabian policy’ after Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, the dictator of 217 BCE, who earned the nickname ‘Cunctator’ (Delayer). The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome.It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal.   Privacy Carthage was in a difficult situation after the defeat of the First Punic War. After seventeen years of war with great loss of lives from both sides, Carthage was defeated by Rome view the full answer What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? The Second Punic War was fought between Rome, Carthage, and their mutual allies. Another victory came near Lake Trasimene in June 217 BCE where 15,000 Romans were killed and 10,000 captured. With his genius, Hannibal Barca, though, gained much ground, but eventually lost to the Romans in this war. In 212-211 BCE, when Capua was besieged by six Roman legions, Hannibal tried to make them withdraw by feigning a march on Rome, but the ruse failed. He had set off with 90,000 soldiers and 12,000 cavalry, and on arrival he had at his disposal only 20,000 men and half his original cavalry. Both Syracuse and Tarentum defected to Carthage in 214 and 212 BCE respectively, but Hannibal was being left without support in Italy. This huge force moved towards Utica to relieve the siege in 203 BCE. The Romans insisted on Carthage giving up its entire fleet (except a paltry 10 ships), all elephants, and all Roman prisoners. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Hannibal’s mix of Italian veterans and new recruits numbered some 45,000 men and included 2,000 Numidian cavalry from their ally Tychaeus. The expected break-up of Rome’s hegemony and a mass Gaul uprising did not happen. ...The Punic Wars were 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage that lasted from 264 to 146 B.C. The third and final war lasted 49-146 B.C, for 3 years. Scipio fielded 30,000 infantry and 5,500 cavalry, which included 6,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry from Masinissa. Further, Carthage could not make war without Rome’s permission, had to recognise the territories of the new Numidian king Masinissa, and pay in reparations to Rome the huge sum of 10,000 talents over the next half century. Realising they were up against one of history’s greatest commanders, Rome changed tactics and adopted a policy of avoiding Hannibal in direct battle, instead fighting only his allies. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. Carthage sent an army of 23,000 to the island in 213 BCE but could not prevent the city falling into the hands of Marcus Claudius Marcellus, a veteran of the First Punic War, in 212 BCE. There followed another quick victory against a 4,000-strong Carthaginian cavalry force. Scipio immediately defeated a contingent of 500 Carthaginian cavalry and then had his army boosted by the arrival of Masinissa’s Numidian cavalry. It would be a lesson well-learned and repeated again and again by the Roman army, now well-practised at fighting in multiple theatres simultaneously. The outbreak of the Second Punic War began when Hannibal moved north across Ebro to begin his historic march over the Alps. 20,000 Carthaginians had fallen while Rome suffered fewer than 5,000 fatalities. Marcellus shipped large amounts of Greek art back to Rome in a novel method of impressing the populace with his success. They were then herded back in the direction of the Carthaginians to cause havoc there. The Romans, though, had missed a trick. Scipio Africanus the Elderby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Still, a lot was happening in the Carthage backyard, i.e. Outcomes from the Second Punic War The second Púnic war (herein after referred to as, “the War”) came to a close in 201 BCE, following Scípio’s victory over Hánnibal at the battle of Záma. A Roman army was then defeated in Gaul in 216 BCE, but their fortunes slowly began to improve. Most of the leadership in Cartha… What were the outcomes of the second Punic War Hannibal along with a massive, 3 out of 4 people found this document helpful. Led by Mago, Hannibal’s brother, the 14,000-strong force suffered from an inability to land closer to Hannibal’s army because of Roman naval dominance and their control of the major ports. Last modified May 29, 2016. Scipio’s cavalry wings crushed the enemy and the African infantry collapsed. In 215 BCE Rome attacked southern Spain, dramatically defeating Hasdrubal at the battle of Ibera in 215 BCE. It is said that the Romans. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Carthage was destroyed after a relatively brief and one-sided war. Spain, the original flashpoint of the war, was now cleared of Carthaginian forces. Neither could Hasdrubal support him from Spain nor Carthage by sea. Hannibal seemed unstoppable. The First Punic War had shown that Rome could not be defeated from the outside, but perhaps fighting in its own territory and stirring up rebellions, it might be defeated from within. The two sides did not clash, rather, each established a camp to see out the winter. After Scipio sent a force to establish Masinissa on the throne and capture Syphax, the Numidian threat was removed. Battle of Lilybaeum – A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of 35 galleys. Scipio then made allies of two Numidian princes, Syphax and Masinissa, in preparation for his plan to take the war to Africa. Campaigns of the Second Punic Warby YassineMrabet (GNU FDL). Hannibal desperately tried to conquer a port city, notably Neapolis (Naples) and Tarentum (Taranto), but all attempts failed, as did repeated attacks on Nola. Roman Beach Attackby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 29 May 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Hannibal expected Rome to attack his position in Spain and, indeed, a Roman army was sent there with 60 quinqueremes under the command of P. Cornelius Scipio while another one sailed for Sicily. History (code 01) What were the outcomes of the second Punic War Hannibal once again released Italian prisoners but dealt harshly with Roman captives to emphasise he was at war with only the latter and local communities were welcome to join him. Cartwright, Mark. Cartwright, Mark. In the Second Punic War, to neutralise Carthage and gain dominanace of the Western Mediterranean. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians … Hannibal established his reputation for near invincibility when he won a battle at the Ticinus (Ticino) river near Pavia and again at the Trebia River in December 218 BCE. While the first two wars were among the largest ever fought at the time and took place all over Europe and North Africa, most of the Third Punic War took place in and around Tunisia. It lasted between 218 and 201 BC. University of the People is a 501(c)(3) not for profit organization. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? In addition, Scipio had conquered Tunis. Remember to cite your sources. The outcome of the First Punic War was a resounding victory to Rome and the Carthage leadership signing a peace treaty advising as such. The raids were hugely successful and devastated the enemy. The Romans took over the Carthaginian mantle as the rulers of the seas and so, if Carthage were to wrest control back from its arch-enemy, it would have to fight on land, and that required money, lots of it. Battle of Cannae 216 BC. Web. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. The Iberians now gave up the Carthaginian cause and Rome had access to the enemy’s silver mines to boost its war effort. Meanwhile, the war was widening. In the summer of 202 BCE, the war was very much back on again and the two sides would clash in one final decisive battle. Scipio marched to meet them, and after three days of merely observing each other, the battle commenced. Hannibal, along with a massive army and the inclusion of elephants, fought a battle against the Roman army at Ticinus, Trebia and Trasimene. Rome entered the Second Punic War as the dominant city in Italy..., yet emerged as a world power'. Hasdrubal escaped to Italy but the remains of his army were defeated at the Metaurus River the following year. Disclaimer Regarding Use of Course Material. The war began in 264 B.C.E. b. Books While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. After a period of hesitant peace negotiations, which may only have been offered for Scipio to gain intelligence on the enemy positions, the Roman general divided his force in two and attacked the camps of Syphax and Gisgo at night. They were never really helpful militarily to the Carthaginians. The final outcome of the Second Punic War was the defeat of Hannibal and the conquest of Carthage. Back in Spain, Scipio Africanus was gaining local allies, and he defeated a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal at Baecula in 208 BCE. Once again, though, Rome’s seemingly inexhaustible resources in men, ships, and money, combined with skills on the battlefield and command of the seas, had ensured Rome could replenish losses more easily than Carthage. 1. Territories During the Second Punic Warby Javierfv1212 (CC BY-SA). Meanwhile, Rome seized control of Sardinia which had been Carthage’s most important source of grain. "Second Punic War." Saguntum was retaken but both Roman commanders, P. Cornelius Scipio and Gn. Under Philip V, the Macedonians proved no match for the Roman general Marcus Valerius Laevinus, and Macedon was forced out of the Adriatic and into a war with the Aetolian Confederacy in north-west Greece. Sawed Salt in the soil, no nothing would would ever grow there again ... What's the effects of LATIFUNDIA. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. Before leaving Spain, however, Hannibal was well aware that Roman forces intended for him would try to meet him there. In 205 BCE, after being appointed consul, Scipio crossed the Mediterranean to Sicily and strengthened his army. Their replacement in Spain was the proconsul Publius Cornelius Scipio whose later exploits would allow him to add an ‘Africanus’ to his name. Discuss the differences between the governments and militaries of Rome and Carthage that account for, Discussion Forum unit 5.docx HIST 1421.docx, University of the People • ART HIST HIST 1421, Discussion forum unit 5 06-Mars-2019 -final.docx, Copyright © 2020. Rome, despite having a dangerous enemy on its doorstep, was tenacious if nothing else and rejected all offers of a peace deal. List of battles of the Second Punic War. This force consisted of 30,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry, and Gisgo was almost immediately joined by the Numidian Syphax with his army of 50,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. which was for 23 years. The Second Punic War After their defeat in the first Punic War, Carthage regrouped and poised for another attack. Spain, which definitely had a great impact on the final outcome of the war. When Scipio attacked Utica, the city proved more resilient than expected, and Carthage, meanwhile, assembled an army under Gisgo, son of Hasdrubal. The Punic Wars were arguably the most significant armed struggle in all of antiquity. The Carthaginian forces were led by Hannibal … Keep up the good work. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Carthage sent an army to Liguria in northern Italy in 205 BCE. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Macedon too was brought into the war. The Second Punic War was underway. Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae in the most severe defeat ever suffered by Rome. How did the outcome the punic wars lead to the rise of rome? The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal … These defeats now put the city of Carthage itself in danger and necessitated the return of Hannibal from Italy to defend the homeland. Then, in 204 BCE, with a force of around 30,000 men and 440 ships, he crossed to North Africa in three days. Image Credit: shorthistory One of the biggest event of this war was Hannibal Barca’s supreme riseand subsequent defeat. Early in the spring of 218 BC, Hannibal set out from Carthago Nova, … Cartwright, M. (2016, May 29). The two commanders actually met in person in a conference where Hannibal perhaps requested a peace settlement but Scipio was probably keen to end the long war with a showpiece battle and earn himself a triumph back in Rome. Without a significant fleet and having lost their strategically important fortresses in Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia, the Carthaginians had to look elsewhere for a source of money to fund their armies. Accordingly, Hannibal left Hasdrubal Barca (son of Hamilcar Barca) in charge of things in Spain and audaciously crossed the Alps in 15 days. The North African Berber kingdom of Numidia (202-40 BCE) was originally... Hannibal Barca (l. 247-183 BCE), the brilliant Carthaginian general... Carthaginian commander Mago is unable to join forces with. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Related Content Rome had a far superior navy, but Carthage had the best commander in Hannibal. Causes of the Second Punic War The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean.” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. 50,000 of the enemy were killed compared to 5,700 on Carthaginian side, most of those being Gauls. This preview shows page 33 - 34 out of 34 pages. He invaded ever deeper inland and then besieged and conquered Saguntum (modern Sagunto, just north of Valencia), a long-time ally of Rome, in 219 BCE. In the so-called Truceless War (also Mercenary War) between 241 and 237 BCE, Carthage had to put down a joint rebellion of mercenary troops, understandably upset at not having been paid for their efforts in the first Punic War, Libyan groups, and several cities such as Tunis and Utica. Hannibal had defeated several large Roman armies, but Rome itself, as in the First Punic War, seemed immune to the losses. ‘God has given to man no sharper spur to victory than contempt of. Rome was reeling but Hannibal was on his own, and he fatefully decided not to attack Rome itself. The answer was Spain. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? The Second Punic War was lost and Hannibal sued for peace terms. Luckily, the Romans captured a Carthaginian ship and copied their design. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Romans also took possession of southern Spain. The strategy of Fabius, although interrupted occasionally by zealous commanders eager for glory in their one year of office as consul, was slowly working and, relentlessly, the Romans backed Hannibal into an ever-smaller pocket so that by 207 BCE he controlled only Bruttium. Hannibal had employed his customary tactics of high mobility in the field too and enveloped the enemy while his cavalry attacked the rear. This action had the consent of the Carthaginian government but it would prove one move too far for the Romans who, having by now dealt with the troublesome northern Gauls and Illyria, demanded Hannibal be handed over for suitable punishment. These commanders were Sempronius, at the Trebbia River, Flaminius, at Lake Trasimene, Paullus, at Cannae, and Scipio, at Zama. The Second Punic War. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. The expedition was not without cost. On Sicily, the Carthaginians lost their useful ally, Syracuse. At the beginning of the war both sides had been roughly equal in fighting forces on land. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. Two strategic mistakes which would be regretted by the Carthaginians. In the First Punic War, to gain control of Sicily. The Second Punic War or the Hannibalic War lasted sixteen years from 218 BC to 202 BC and was fought between the two major powers of Rome and Carthage. In the Shadow of the Furies: A Novel of the Second Punic War, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The Third Punic War (149 – 146 BC) was the last in the trilogy of conflicts between Rome and Carthage. Carthage made overtures for peace in 203 BCE, perhaps only to allow Hannibal time to come back home as indicated by their treatment of a Roman transport fleet blown off course in 202 BCE. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Second Punic War brought about the downfall of the established balance of power of the ancient world and Rome rose to become the supreme power in the Mediterranean region for the coming 600 years. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘Mercenary War’ and there was a strong pro-peace party in the city. The Start of the First Punic War. However, all the Latin colonies and central Italy remained loyal to Rome and this meant that Hannibal’s new acquisitions had to be constantly defended. Expert Answer . In the Second Punic War, various Roman commanders faced Hannibal, leader of the forces of Carthaginians, their allies, and mercenaries.Four major Roman commanders made a name for themselves in the following main battles of the second Punic War. Tribute in money if not men was extracted from local cities and new silver mines were worked. Hamilcar Barca was recalled from Sicily and he joined Hanno the Great, who had recently made significant conquests in Libya, to quash the rebellion. Outcome- In the Second Punic War, the incomparable Carthaginian general Hannibal attacked Italy and scored extraordinary triumphs at Lake Trasimene and Cannae before his inevitable destruction on acco view the full answer. These were supplemented with sympathetic Gauls from northern Italy and the Carthaginian pressed on regardless. The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 bce) The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. In October 202 BCE, the armies of Hannibal and Scipio met on a plain in western Tunisia near Naraggara. The forces involved, and the casualties suffered by both sides, were far … ... that ended the Second Punic War to attack Carthage. It began in 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C. https://www.ancient.eu/Second_Punic_War/. Hannibal’s father had made his son swear never to be a friend of Rome, and with this solid platform of wealth and arms, he did not disappoint for the commander, still only 26, would become Rome’s greatest ever foe. Hasdrubal the Fair took over from Hamilcar Barca following his death by drowning in 229 BCE and added another 10,000 infantry to his force and 8,000 cavalry, while his war elephants also doubled to 200. Carthage declined and Rome declared war in March 218 BCE. (Punic Wars, 2009) However, the Romans retaliated, winning engagements fought at Spain and North Africa due to the leadership of Publius Cornelius Scipio. The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. In both wars, the Carthaginians had also been made to pay Rome massive reparations. The Second Punic War happened between 218 BC and 201 BC. After three bad losses worse was to follow for Rome in August 216 BCE when Hannibal, moving into southern Italy, won a great victory against a much larger opposing army (80,000 men) at Cannae in Apulia (modern Puglia) in the heel of the Italian peninsula. The Start of the Second Punic War 218 BC. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 May 2016. The Socii Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Second_Punic_War/. Rather, his campaigns in Italy sought to compel Rome to recognise Carthage’s claim on its empire. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Hannibal rose to become a great leader of the Carthaginians that can be regarded as a huge spectacle of the war.   Terms. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Consequences Of The Second Punic War. Fabius knew that, as at Cannae, Hannibal might win direct confrontations, but he could be worn down by blocking his supplies by sea and entrapping him in Italy. The clock was ticking and Rome had time on their side. Rome forced Carthage to pay for damages after the war, so Carthage had very little left to pay the mercenaries. Cite This Work Before Carthage could think about Rome, it first had to deal with the continued unrest closer to home. Carthaginian territory was then turned into the province of Africa by the Roman. Hannibal surprised them by deciding to invade Italy. Then in 221 BCE a new face arrived on the scene: Hannibal, eldest son of Hamilcar Barca. At the same time in Italy, Hannibal was still holding out despite facing armies twice the size of his own force. Rome then could establish firm control over the island by 210 BCE. The First Punic War had been tremendously costly to both sides but Rome’s seemingly inexhaustible resources, especially its capacity to renew large naval fleets meant that, ultimately, Carthage could not compete with the Mediterranean’s newest superpower. For Carthage it would be the very last throw of the dice. ’ s claim on its doorstep, was now cleared of Carthaginian.! What were the outcomes of the biggest event of this War Barca’s supreme riseand subsequent defeat while Rome suffered than! 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